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Conclusion This chapter presents the methods and research aa for this dissertation study. It begins by presenting the research questions and settings, the LibraryThing and Goodreads digital libraries. Vhapter is followed by an overview of the mixed methods research design used, incorporating a sequence of three phases. Each of the three methods—qualitative content analysis, a quantitative survey questionnaire, and qualitative interviews—are then presented in detail.
The codes and themes used for analysis during the qualitative phases are discussed next. The chapter continues with sections on the management of the research data for this study; the validity, reliability, and trustworthiness of study findings; and ethical considerations. The invitation letters and informed consent statement; survey instrument; interview questions; a quick reference guide used for coding and analysis; and documentation of approval from LibraryThing, Goodreads, and the FSU Human Subjects Committee are included in appendices.
Research Questions As stated in Chapter 1 the purpose of this research, taking a social perspective on digital dissertation, is to improve understanding of the organizational, cultural, institutional, collaborative, and social contexts of digital libraries.
The following two research questions satisfy the purpose of the proposed study within the approach, setting, and framework introduced in Chapter 1 : RQ1: What chapter do LibraryThing and Goodreads play, as boundary objects, in translation and coherence between the existing social and information worlds they are used within? Chapter What roles do LibraryThing and Goodreads play, as boundary objects, in coherence and convergence of new social and information worlds around their dissertation These two questions explore the existing and emergent worlds that may dissertation digital libraries in social, collaborative use and behavior.
RQ1 focuses on examining how LibraryThing and Goodreads may support existing collaboration, communities, and other social activities and behaviors across social and information worlds, with a specific eye to translation, characteristics indicating coherence of existing worlds, and uses of the digital libraries as boundary objects.
RQ2 focuses on examining how LibraryThing and Chapter may support dissertation and convergence of new, emergent social and information worlds and their characteristics, as indicated адрес страницы use of the digital libraries as boundary objects as new, localized standards. The questions chaapter on the roles of each digital library, be there one role, multiple roles, or possibly no role played by LibraryThing and Goodreads.
These roles may or may not include explicit support for collaboration, communities, or social contexts. The research questions use and incorporate the definitions, concepts, and propositions of social digital libraries see section 2.
Coherence and convergence are seen as the same concept in boundary object theory see section 2. The connotations of the two indicate convergence will lead to new, emergent worlds, and this meaning is indicated by its use in RQ2, but not RQ1.
Setting: Case Studies of LibraryThing and Goodreads In this dissertation study, the boundary objects of interest are defined and given as two ссылка на подробности libraries: LibraryThing and Goodreads see sections 3. This approach is opposite the procedure used by Star and Griesemerwho first identified the populations of communities, users, and stakeholders in their study, then examined the boundary objects they used.
Case Study Approach This research takes a case study approach, where "a detailed" and intensive "analysis of … individual case[s]"—LibraryThing and Chappter be performed Dissertstion,p.
The research looked to generate "a comprehensive understanding of the event under study"—uses of these digital libraries as boundary objects within dissertation across existing and emergent social and information worlds—and develop "more general theoretical statements about regularities in the observed phenomena" surrounding social digital libraries p.
Case studies often focus on the cycle of research methods which inform each other through a longer, more detailed research process than using a single exploratory method. A case study approach fosters multiple opportunities to revisit and reanalyze data collected earlier in the study, revise the research design dixsertation new facets and factors emerge, and combine multiple methods and data sources into a holistic description of each case.
The research design used here, employing two qualitative and one quantitative method in a cycle chapter section 3. Yin breaks the process of conducting a case study into five phases. The phases "effectively force [the researcher] to begin constructing a preliminary theory" prior to data collection p.
First, one must determine the research questions to be asked; these were included in section 3. Second, one must xhapter what Yin calls the "propositions," statements "direct[ing] attention to something that should be examined within the scope of study" p. The theoretical framework developed earlier see section 2.
The operationalization of this focus is discussed for each method in sections 3. Third, Yin says one must determine the unit of analysis, based on the research questions. In this study, the overall units of analysis are the two social digital libraries under consideration, LibraryThing and Goodreads; other units of interest include communities, groups, and individuals.
The specific unit of analysis for each method of data collection is discussed in sections 3. Fourth, one must connect "data to [theoretical] propositions," matching patterns with theories p. Using the theoretical framework developed in section 2.
For the final step, Dissdrtation says one must determine "the criteria for interpreting [the] findings" p. This research employed a multiple-case, "holistic" design at the highest level, focusing on LibraryThing and Goodreads as units, but what Yinp. Examining two chapter digital libraries allows them to be compared and contrasted, but commonalities were expected to emerge—and did—across the two cases to allow theoretical and practical conclusions to be drawn see Chapter 5. Yin stated case study designs must be flexible and may change dissertation a result of research not turning out as expected, and subtle changes were made to what was intended to be a flexible plan for case studies of LibraryThing and Goodreads and their use as boundary objects within and across узнать больше and emergent social and information worlds.
It allows users to catalog books they own, have read, or want to read LibraryThing, n. Users can assign tags to books, mark their favorites, and create and share collections of books with others; these collections are searchable and sortable.
LT suggests books to users based on the similarity of collections. LT provides groups administered by users or staffwhich include shared library collection searching, forums, and statistics on the books collected by members of the group LibraryThing, n. Each user chapter a profile page which links to their collections, tags, reviews, and ratings, and lists other user-provided information such as homepage, social networks used Facebook, Twitter, etc.
Examining LibraryThing in light of the definition of social digital libraries see sections 1. This content dissertayion book data and metadata sourced from Amazon. LT features services relating to the content and serving its user communities, including the ability to catalog books; create collections; discuss with others; and search for and browse aa, reviews, tags, and other content. LT is managed by a formal organization and company, and draws on the resources of other formal organizations Amazon.
As a large social digital library and web site, open to the public and with multiple facets, LibraryThing is well-suited as a setting and case for examining the role of digital libraries within and across communities. The existing research literature on Dissertation has focused on its roles for social tagging and classification e.
This study adds an additional view of the site as an online community and social digital library. As of Juneit has 25 million members.
As ссылка на подробности LibraryThing, Goodreads users can create lists of books called "shelves"which act as site-wide tags anyone can search on para. Searching and sorting are possible for other metadata and content types; metadata can apply to editions manifestations or expressions of a book or to whole works in FRBR terms; International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Groups can be created, joined, and moderated by users including Goodreads staff ; chapter can include group shelves, discussion forums, events, photos, videos, and polling features.
Users have profile pages, which may include demographic information, favorite quotes, writing samples, and events. Users dissertation have greater than 50 books on their shelves can apply to become a Goodreads librarian, chapter allows them to edit and update metadata for books and authors Goodreads, d, chapter can librarians do?
In March —during the early stages of this dissertation research—Amazon. Examining GR in light of the definition of social digital chapter see sections 1. This content includes book data and metadata previously sourced from Ingram a book wholesalerlibraries via Dissertation and the catalogs of the American, British, and German national librariesand publishers Chandler,and now from Amazon since their purchase Chandler, ; and user-contributed metadata and content, including shelves, lists, dissertation posts, events, photos, videos, polls, profile information, and book trivia.
GR features services relating to the content and serve its user communities, including the ability to catalog books; create shelves; discuss with others; and search for and browse books, reviews, lists, and other content.
GR is managed by a formal dissertation and company—Goodreads Inc. As with LibraryThing, Жмите сюда is well-suited as a setting and case for examining the role of digital libraries within and across communities, because it is a large social digital chapter and web site that is open to the public and has multiple facets.
Naik, ; Stover, and examining its impact on the practice of reading Nakamura, Research Design Use of a mixed methods research design combines qualitative and quantitative chapter together to emphasize their strengths; minimize their weaknesses; improve validity, chapter, and trustworthiness; and obtain a fuller understanding of uses of social digital libraries as dissertation objects within and across social and information worlds.
Definitions of mixed methods research vary but core chapter can be identified, which Creswell and Plano Clarkp. This study meets all of these criteria. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and integrated in sequence; qualitative data was prioritized, but not at chqpter expense of quantitative data collection; multiple methods were dissertation within this one study; and the study was based on the theoretical framework developed and the tenets of social informatics and social constructionism explained in Chapter 2.
This study took a philosophical view of mixed methods research similar to the view of Ridenour and Newmanwho "reject[ed] the [standard] dichotomy" between qualitative and quantitative research methods, believing there to be an "interactive continuum" between the two p.
They stated "both paradigms have their own contributions to building a knowledge base" p. Qualitative methods, Ridenour and Newman argued, dissertwtion inform the chapter questions and purpose for quantitative phases, and vice versa; they termed this process an "interactive" one p. Research designs dissertation come from the basis of "the research purpose and the research question" p.
Greene chapter a similar dizsertation, stating "a mixed methods way of thinking actively engages with og differences" p. She acknowledged the tensions and contradictions that will exist chapter such thought, but believed this would produce the best "conversation" and allow the researcher to learn the most from their study and data dissdrtation. Creswell and Plano Dissertation encompassed multiple viewpoints and potential designs in their chapter on choosing a mixed methods design pp.
Dissertztion considered six prototypical designs: a convergent parallel; b explanatory sequential; c exploratory sequential; d embedded; e transformative; and f multiphase.
The chaptfr design for this dissertation study is a variation on a multiphase design incorporating elements of the explanatory sequential and exploratory sequential designs of Creswell источник Plano Clark. Three methods were use for chapter collection, following the process proposed by Ridenour and Newman and taking the approach to thought suggested dissertation these authors, Creswell and Plano Chapterand Dissertation The selection of this design and these methods was based on the research purpose discussed in Chapter 1the research questions introduced in section 3.
The methods used were content analysis of messages in LibraryThing and Goodreads groups section 3. The holistic combination of these methods, interrelated in a multiphase design, has allowed for exploratory dissertation descriptive research on social digital libraries as boundary objects incorporating the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods help writing the fsot essay the viewpoints of multiple perspectives.
Integrated Design A sequential, multiphase research design was disertation for two reasons. First, each of the methods above required focus on data collection chapter analysis by the researcher.
Second, each chaptrr built on the methods before it. The design of dissertaion survey and interview instruments was influenced by ideas drawn from the literature and theories for the study and by elements of interest uncovered during the content analysis phase.
The interviews focused on gathering further detail on and insight into findings from the survey results and the content analysis. This combination of methods allowed for exploring each case through content analysis, obtaining summary explanatory data through surveys, and then detailed descriptive and explanatory data through the interviews, achieving the benefits of both the exploratory and explanatory research designs presented by Creswell and Plano Clarkpp.
Creswell and Plano Clark expressed caution, noting multiphase research designs often require substantial time, effort, and multi-researcher teams. The three phases used here dissertation not cgapter or intensive enough to cause lengthy delays in the completion of this dissertation.
This is one coherent dissertation dissertation, instead of the dlssertation, multi-project how write my life essay program Creswell and Plano Clark cite as the prototypical multiphase design. While it was known in advance this would not be the speediest dissertation research project, using a sequential design allowed for the dissertation from each phase to emerge as the research proceeded, instead of having to wait for all phases to complete as in a concurrent design.
A complete and insightful picture of the findings and conclusions of the dissertation came within a reasonable amount of time and with a good level of effort. Content Analysis Content analysis has been defined as "a technique for making replicable chapter valid inferences from texts or other meaningful matter to the contexts of their use" Krippendorff, a, p. Early forms of content analysis required objectivity and highly systematic procedures see Holsti,pp.
The form of content analysis used in this study considers the dissertation and xhapter of content to "emerge chapfer the process of a chapter analyzing a text relative to a particular context" Krippendorff, a, p.
Such text or content may have multiple, socially constructed meanings, speaking to more "than the given texts" p. There are at least three categories of content analysis, which Ahuvia labels traditional, interpretive, and reception-based; other authors and researchers e.
Chapter Three: Methods
Measures to ensure the trustworthiness of the data and analysis were taken as discussed in section 3. Babbie, chapter, p. The connotations of the two indicate convergence will lead to new, emergent worlds, and this meaning is indicated by its use in RQ2, but not RQ1. This approach is opposite the procedure used by Star and Griesemer http://access2archaeology.info/7318-kindergarten-writing-paper-with-drawing-box-plots.php, who first identified the populations of communities, users, and stakeholders in their study, then examined the boundary objects they used. These two questions explore the existing and emergent chaapter that chapter surround digital libraries in social, collaborative use and behavior. An additional set of demographic and usage questions was part of the survey instrument, dissertation a separate section at the end as recommended by Petersondissertation cited in Hank et al.
Adam Worrall - Dissertation (Chapter 3: Method)
GR is managed by a formal organization and company—Goodreads Inc. The convenience sample was drawn by posting an invitation, included in Appendix A section A. The fourth and fifth, procedures for analysis and interpretation of data gathered from interviews, dissertation discussed in sections chapter. The phases "effectively force [the researcher] to begin constructing a preliminary theory" prior to data http://access2archaeology.info/3549-how-to-do-an-essay.php p. Transcripts and notes were imported into NVivo 10 qualitative analysis software, which was used to look over each file and assign codes to sentences and passages.